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Evolution of the Longevity Industry

from Zero to 1.0

  • The Industrialization of Longevity

  • The Current State of Longevity Science, Business, Finance, and Practical Applications

  • Longevity Becomes National Priority Item for the Strategic Agenda of Progressive Governments

  • Transforming the Challenge and Deficit of Aging into the Opportunity and Asset of Longevity

  • Defining and De-Risking: Hype vs. Reality

Data Science for Accelerating Aging Research, The Critical Catalyst for Practical Human Longevity and Tangible Investment De-Risking

  • Modern Tools for Investment De-Risking, Accelerating R&D, Safe Self-Experimentation 

  • Tangible Metrics and Frameworks for Company Valuation and Due Diligence and the Shift from Model Organism (Mouse) Validation to Human Validation

  • Longevity Economy 2.0 — Biomarkers of Human Longevity as Major Catalyst to Increase Investments and Ensure Sustainable Growth of Longevity Financial Sector

  • DeepTech Engineering Towards the Concept of Digital Human Avatar 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0

About the Book: Biomarkers of Human Longevity

Our 2020 book ‘Longevity Industry 1.0: Defining the Biggest and Most Complex Industry in Human History’  distilled the complex assembly of deep market intelligence that Deep Knowledge Group and its Longevity-focused subsidiaries (including Longevity.Capital and Aging Analytics Agency) have developed over the past 7 years into a full-scope understanding of the

global Longevity Industry.


That book placed particular emphasis on the power that Biomarkers of Human Longevity have to serve as a major catalyst and accelerator of short-term practical applications, the translation of theory into practice, and industry de-risking, stabilization and sustainable growth across almost every major aspect, domain, and driving force of the Global Longevity MegaTrend, from business to scientific R&D, personal health optimization and Practical Human Longevity, the Longevity Financial Industry, investment decision-making, Longevity Industrialization, and Longevity Politics, Policy and Governance. Both the increasing amount of tangible developments that have occurred within this domain since the release of ‘Longevity Industry 1.0’ in September 2020, as well as the systematically increasing need for Longevity Industry participants and stakeholders of all kinds - scientists, entrepreneurs, investors, financiers and policy-makers to being on-boarding and utilizing Biomarkers of Human Longevity within their strategic decision-making processes, has led to the decision that the time has come for a dedicated book on this topic.

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Biomarkers of Human Longevity - Foreword by Dmitry Kaminskiy

There is perhaps no other single technology or industry subsector, with the exception of AI, that has more potential to accelerate the realization of real-world impacts in Longevity across the full scope of its sectors and domains - industry, policy, investoment, entrepreneurship, policy and governance - than Biomarkers of Human Longevity. It is, quite literally, the key to achieving substantial real-world impact in the translation of Longevity theory into practice in the next several years, applying equally to individuals, scientists, entrepreneurs, investors and even governments. 


Similarly, there are few other technologies and industry driving factors that find themselves the subject of so many differing opinions in terms of what should be definitionally encompassed by Biomarkers of Longevity, how they should be aggregated and validated both on an individual and population level, and how they can or should be applied in practice, both logistically, as well as with what specific end goals and practical impacts in mind.


Given the unique confluence of Biomarkers of Human Longevity’s disruptive impact and accelerative potential, on the one hand, and the high degree of disharmonization in terms of what they are and how they could and should be used, on the other hand, it is clear to me that there is a pressing unmet need for the production of a dedicated book that takes Biomarkers of Longevity as its central concern and major fulcrum, identifying the true potential that this technology has to increase individual and national Health-Adjusted Life Expectancy (HALE) and Quality-Adjusted Life Expectancy (QALY), optimize strategic decision-making for start-ups and corporations, de-risk investment, provide for the first time a tangible framework for company valuation, due diligence based on human validation, enable reliable forecasting clinical outcomes, serve as an effective platform for safe self-experimentation and personalized therapeutic fine-tuning, and pave the way for a much more tangible, stable and scalable Global Longevity Industry, where Longevity’s socially-inclusive humanitarian impact is maximized and its potential ethical and socioeconomic concerns are neutralized.


Deep Knowledge Group and its Longevity-focused subsidiaries and affiliates, including its analytical subsidiary Aging Analytics Agency, its specialized investment arm Longevity.Capital, its portfolio companies Longevity Banking Card and Longevity Financial Advisors and the international non-profit consortium Longevity.International, have prioritized the pressing need and the extreme potential of Biomarkers of Human Longevity (and integrated them in various ways into its overall scope of activities and strategic agenda) for several years now, and are expertly positioned to provide a tangible understanding of the major challenges and opportunities to be faced within this domain, and how they can be applied by individuals, institutions and even entire governments in order to achieve their maximum benefits while neutralizing potential pitfalls and issues. 


In this book, I will distill the major conclusions, frameworks and forecasts developed and applied by Deep Knowledge Group on this matter with the overall aim of sharing some of our own key principles on how this technology can be effectively applied to optimize strategic decision-making, showing exactly how Biomarkers of Human Longevity is one of the most prospective market-ready tools for achieving tangible short-term results in personal Practical Human Longevity, making tangible Longevity investment decision-making and de-risking, re-tuning the business models of financial corporations (insurance companies, pension funds, and investment banks) at the intersection of the Opposed MegaTrends of Aging Population vs National Healthy Longevity.

Chapter 1: Biomarkers of Human Longevity as the Industry’s Major Critical Catalyst for Accelerating Practical Results in Aging Research Needed for Industry Growth

Chapter 1 presents an overview of the ways in which Biomarkers of Human Longevity will serve as the major catalyst for short-term change, development and harmonization within the Longevity Industry, capable of optimizing the strategies and practices of Longevity companies, investors and policy makers and enabling the first tangible,  real-world impacts in the translation of Longevity science and theory into practice of Healthy Human Longevity.

Biomarkers of Longevity: Distribution by Amplitude Level

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Biomarkers of Longevity: Distribution by Sector

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Chapter 2: The Longevity Industry’s Fundamental and Systemic Risk: Reliance on Animal Model (Mouse) Results for Investment Due Diligence, Decision Making and Valuations

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  • What if Geroscience based on mice experimental model fails to deliver? 

  • Let’s separate hype related to mice life extension from reality in a tangible rational mode

  • Pursuing pragmatic optimism for the Longevity Industry

Chapter 2 presents an analysis of the Longevity Industry’s foremost fundamental and systemic risk and potential source of future destabilization (over reliance on animal validation data), which lays the necessary background and context for the third and fourth chapters of this book, which provide an overview of how Biomarkers of Human Longevity, in integral combination with other modern tools, techniques and technologies, can be used to neutralize this source of risk, and pave the way for more stable and balanced developmental prospects for the future of the Global Longevity Industry by de-risking investments.

Chapter 3: Reality Check –
The Current State of Longevity Clinical Trials
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Chapter 3 summarizes the various ways that Longevity clinical trials have not yet resulted in regulatory approval for any one fully concern-free Longevity drug or therapeutic, and the ways in which biomarkers and other related technologies for safe human validation can be used to stabilize and modernize the process of Longevity clinical testing.

The lack of tangible frameworks based on human validation for Longevity company valuation and due diligence, especially in the case of companies seeking to go public, creates significant risks and issues for the continued growth and stability of the industry.

Chapter 4: The Longevity Validation Gap - 12 Case Studies of Public Longevity Companies That Experienced Issues Following Clinical Trial Failures
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Chapter 4 substantiates the arguments presented in chapters 2 and 3 by analyzing 12 notable cases of public Longevity companies that experienced declines in their market capitalization and stock price dynamics following clinical trial failures and an inability to replicate positive model organism results in humans, demonstrating that these issues are already present in the industry, and that they will continue to grow until a more tangible and reliable set of metrics for company due diligence and valuation, based on some level of human validation, is established and widely adopted.

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The number of Longevity companies going public continues to grow: AgeX Therapeuytics (AGE), resTORbio, Inc. (TORC), Unity Biotechnology, Inc. (UBX), Athersys (ATHX), CohBar, Inc. (CWBR), Lineage Cell Therapeutics, Inc. (LCTX), Frequency Therapeutics (FREQ), Proteostasis Therapeutics, Inc. (PTI), Vericel Corporation (VCEL), Biophytis (ALBS.PA), with a number of others (e.g. Human Longevity Inc., Juvenescence, etc.) having announced plans to do so. As the volume of public capital, and the number of retail and institutional investors gaining exposure to the Longevity Industry, continues to grow, the problem of early positive results in model organisms not translating into positive human results in clinical trials becomes an increasingly prominent risk for industry sustainability, and the continued positive trajectory of overall investor confidence.


Modern Data Science Approaches for R&D Process. The Critical Catalyst for Practical Human Longevity. Tangible Investment Decision Making and De-Risking

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Chapter 5: Biomarkers as the Major De-Risking Tool in Biomedicine: Examples from Oncology and Other Industries
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Chapter 5 details the way in which on-boarding a true consensus framework of biomarker panels in the specific case of Oncology and other more traditional “one-disease” biomedical industries resulted in rapid industry maturation, investment de-risking, acceleration of R&D and clinical translation efforts, and the implementation of effective real-world impacts on actual patients - which collectively stand as a major historical precedent for many of the impacts that biomarkers are likely to have on the Longevity Industry, especially given its unprecedented complexity compared to traditional biomedicine. Biomarkers de-complexity industries by establishing tangible metrics for forecasting clinical outcomes, thereby substantially de-risking investment decisions.

Chapter 6: A Proposed Solution to The Longevity Industry’s Biggest Risk: Modern Tools for Safe Human Validation to De-Risk Investment Decision Making & IPOs

Chapter 6 outlined a preliminary framework of metrics and technologies that can serve both as a basis for safe self-experimentation and for company valuation and due diligence based on human validation, as well as how the widespread adoption of these and similar approaches has the power to substantially de-risk investments in order to both increase the total volume of capital available for funding further industry progress and to neutralize the risk of widespread declines in investor sentiment as a result of too many public Longevity companies failing to replicate their positive model organism results in humans. As chapter 4 outline, we are already seeing this trend occur in a number of public Longevity companies, emphasizing the critical need adopting these frameworks already now.

Chapter 7: SpaceTech and Space Medicine as a Modern Precedent for Safe and Effective Human Experimentation and Therapeutic Validation in the Longevity Industry
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Chapter 7 discusses the domains of SpaceTech and Sport Medicine as a modern precedent for safe and effective human experimentation and validation, exploring the lessons that can be learned and applied by the Longevity Industry, to facilitate a paradigm shift away from almost complete reliance on the results of model organism studies for due diligence, company valuation and investment decision making, and towards a more realistic, relevant and modern human-centered approach. It also addresses some interesting scientific and technological convergences between aging and the negative effects of spaceflight, and the ways in which the specific therapeutic approaches used to protect and preserve the health of astronauts intersect with Practical Healthy Human Longevity, as well as how advanced medicine is used to enhance extra performance in sport.

Longevity Biomarkers and Space Medicine:

Mitochondria-Related Adaptations

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Longevity Biomarkers and Space Medicine: The NASA Twins Study

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Multidimensional, longitudinal assays of the NASA Twins Study. (Left and middle) Genetically identical twin subjects (ground and flight) were characterized across 10 generalized biomedical modalities before (preflight), during (inflight), and after flight (postflight) for a total of 25 months (circles indicate time points at which data were collected). (Right) Data were integrated to guide biomedical metrics across various “-omics” for future missions (concentric circles indicate, from inner to outer, cytokines, proteome, transcriptome, and methylome).

Chapter 8: NeuroTech and the Role of Cognitive, Neurological and Psychological Biomarkers of Human Longevity
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Chapter 8  outlines the role of NeuroTech, and of neurological, cognitive and psychological Biomarkers of Human Longevity within the broader industry landscape, illustrating how no approach to Practical Longevity could be complete without accounting for the health of the brain, how NeuroTech’s engineering mindset and existing emphasis on human (as opposed to model organism) validation makes it likely to adopt a consensus framework of Human Biomarkers of Longevity than other sectors, as well as additional practical convergences and complimentary intersections between NeuroTech and Space Medicine.

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Chapter 9: Longevity Economy 2.0 - Biomarkers of Human Longevity as Major Catalyst to Increase Investments
and Ensure Sustainable Growth of Longevity Financial Sector
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Chapter 5 presents an analysis of the ways in which the financial industry in particular can on-board Biomarkers of Human Longevity as the basis for tangible frameworks for human-centered company valuation, due diligence and de-risking investments to the extent needed for very large and conservative institutional investors, UHNWIs and financial corporations to begin actively fueling further industry growth and stabilization. It also charts the specific scope of investment and financial approaches, vehicles and instruments required to truly transform these practices from tools being used by a small minority of Longevity investors (like Deep Knowledge Group, Deep Knowledge Ventures and Longevity.Capital) into industry standard practices to the mutual benefit of investors, companies, the general public and the entire industry itself.

Chapter 10: DeepTech Engineering Towards the Concept of a Comprehensive Digital Human Avatar 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0
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Chapter X charts the future of Human Biomarkers of Longevity from now to 2030, outlining the ways that Biomarkers of Human Longevity will be fundamental and essential to achieving real-world results in Practical Human Longevity. The many developments occurring in biomarkers are quickly converging to enable the development of Digital Human Avatars: consumer-grade devices capable of the aggregation, storage, and analysis of high volumes of individual biological and non-biological data to enable personalized predictive models of individual humans. These systems will for the first time allow people to reliably take control of their own health and Longevity in a safe manner, assessing their current state of health and testing, re-tuning and refining in near real-time, and eventually developing to encompass the full scope of markers - biological, technological, financial, environmental, infrastructural and even political - that have an impact on health, wealth, performance and Longevity. 

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AI and Digital Platforms: Towards a “Digital Avatar”
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Digital Human Avatar: Projected Developmental Timeline
About the Author

Mr. Kaminskiy serves as managing trustee of Biogerontology Research Foundation, the UK’s oldest Longevity focused charity, and Head of International Development of the Longevity International UK - the Secretariat for the UK All-Party Parliamentary Group for Longevity, the world’s first official parliamentary group specifically dedicated to Longevity.

Dmitry Kaminskiy is an innovative entrepreneur, investor, author and philanthropist dedicated to impact investment and ethical business, with a focus on engineering the accelerated trajectory of progressive technological development for the benefit of humanity.


Mr. Kaminskiy is a co-founder and managing partner of Deep Knowledge Group - a consortium of commercial and non-profit organizations active on many fronts in the realm of DeepTech and Frontier Technologies (AI, Longevity, Precision Medicine, FinTech, GovTech, InvestTech), ranging from scientific research to investment, entrepreneurship, analytics, policy and philanthropy.


  • He leads the activities of the consortium’s venture arms - Deep Knowledge Ventures, an investment fund focused on DeepTech and advanced science projects, and Longevity.Capital, which prioritizes the convergence of Longevity and Artificial Intelligence, areas in which it has unparalleled investment   and  exit   strategies.

  • He is a frequent speaker on the topics of AI and Longevity, including conferences organized in London by The Economist “Aging Societies and The Business of Longevity”, Financial Times “Smart Machines vs Smart People”, at the Future Finance Forum in Seoul “AI in Finance”, “Precision Medicine World Conference" in Silicon Valley, as well as several others at Oxford and Cambridge Universities.